# Online courses directory (273)

This course will cover fundamentals of digital communications and networking. We will study the basics of information theory, sampling and quantization, coding, modulation, signal detection and system performance in the presence of noise. The study of data networking will include multiple access, reliable packet transmission, routing and protocols of the internet. The concepts taught in class will be discussed in the context of aerospace communication systems: aircraft communications, satellite communications, and deep space communications.

The course begins with the basics of compressible fluid dynamics, including governing equations, thermodynamic context and characteristic parameters. The next large block of lectures covers quasi-one-dimensional flow, followed by a discussion of disturbances and unsteady flows. The second half of the course comprises gas dynamic discontinuities, including shock waves and detonations, and concludes with another large block dealing with two-dimensional flows, both linear and non-linear.

16.225 is a graduate level course on Computational Mechanics of Materials. The primary focus of this course is on the teaching of state-of-the-art numerical methods for the analysis of the nonlinear continuum response of materials. The range of material behavior considered in this course includes: linear and finite deformation elasticity, inelasticity and dynamics. Numerical formulation and algorithms include: variational formulation and variational constitutive updates, finite element discretization, error estimation, constrained problems, time integration algorithms and convergence analysis. There is a strong emphasis on the (parallel) computer implementation of algorithms in programming assignments. The application to real engineering applications and problems in engineering science is stressed throughout the course.

This course serves as an introduction to computational techniques arising in aerospace engineering. Applications are drawn from aerospace structures, aerodynamics, dynamics and control, and aerospace systems. Techniques include: numerical integration of systems of ordinary differential equations; finite-difference, finite-volume, and finite-element discretization of partial differential equations; numerical linear algebra; eigenvalue problems; and optimization with constraints.

The theoretical frameworks of Hartree-Fock theory and density functional theory are presented in this course as approximate methods to solve the many-electron problem. A variety of ways to incorporate electron correlation are discussed. The application of these techniques to calculate the reactivity and spectroscopic properties of chemical systems, in addition to the thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical processes, is emphasized. This course also focuses on cutting edge methods to sample complex hypersurfaces, for reactions in liquids, catalysts and biological systems.

This course provides an overview of astrophysical cosmology with emphasis on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, galaxies and related phenomena at high redshift, and cosmic structure formation. Additional topics include cosmic inflation, nucleosynthesis and baryosynthesis, quasar (QSO) absorption lines, and gamma-ray bursts. Some background in general relativity is assumed.

Videos attempting to grasp a little bit about our Universe (many of the topics associated with "Big History"). Scale of Earth and Sun. Scale of Solar System. Scale of Distance to Closest Stars. Scale of the Galaxy. Intergalactic Scale. Hubble Image of Galaxies. Big Bang Introduction. Radius of Observable Universe. (Correction) Radius of Observable Universe. Red Shift. Cosmic Background Radiation. Cosmic Background Radiation 2. Cosmological Time Scale 1. Cosmological Time Scale 2. Four Fundamental Forces. Birth of Stars. Becoming a Red Giant. White and Black Dwarfs. A Universe Smaller than the Observable. Star Field and Nebula Images. Parallax in Observing Stars. Stellar Parallax. Stellar Distance Using Parallax. Stellar Parallax Clarification. Parsec Definition. Hubble's Law. Lifecycle of Massive Stars. Supernova (Supernovae). Supernova clarification. Black Holes. Cepheid Variables 1. Why Cepheids Pulsate. Why Gravity Gets So Strong Near Dense Objects. Supermassive Black Holes. Quasars. Quasar Correction. Galactic Collisions. Earth Formation. Beginnings of Life. Ozone Layer and Eukaryotes Show Up in the Proterozoic Eon. Biodiversity Flourishes in Phanerozoic Eon. First living things on land clarification. Plate Tectonics-- Difference between crust and lithosphere. Structure of the Earth. Plate Tectonics -- Evidence of plate movement. Plate Tectonics -- Geological Features of Divergent Plate Boundaries. Plate Tectonics-- Geological features of Convergent Plate Boundaries. Plates Moving Due to Convection in Mantle. Hawaiian Islands Formation. Compositional and Mechanical Layers of the Earth. Seismic Waves. Why S-Waves Only Travel in Solids. Refraction of Seismic Waves. The Mohorovicic Seismic Discontinuity. How we know about the Earth's core. Pangaea. Scale of the Large. Scale of the Small. Detectable Civilizations in our Galaxy 1. Detectable Civilizations in our Galaxy 2. Detectable Civilizations in our Galaxy 3. Detectable Civilizations in our Galaxy 4. Detectable Civilizations in our Galaxy 5. Human Evolution Overview. Understanding Calendar Notation. Correction Calendar Notation. Development of Agriculture and Writing. Introduction to Light. Seasons Aren't Dictated by Closeness to Sun. How Earth's Tilt Causes Seasons. Milankovitch Cycles Precession and Obliquity. Are Southern Hemisphere Seasons More Severe?. Precession Causing Perihelion to Happen Later. What Causes Precession and Other Orbital Changes. Apsidal Precession (Perihelion Precession) and Milankovitch Cycles. Firestick Farming. Carbon 14 Dating 1. Carbon 14 Dating 2. Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) Dating. K-Ar Dating Calculation. Chronometric Revolution. Collective Learning. Land Productivity Limiting Human Population. Energy Inputs for Tilling a Hectare of Land. Random Predictions for 2060.

Things in our universe can be unimaginably large and small. In this topic, we'll try to imagine the unimaginable!. Scale of the Large. Scale of the Small. Introduction to Light. Four Fundamental Forces. Scale of Earth and Sun. Scale of Solar System. Scale of Distance to Closest Stars. Scale of the Galaxy. Intergalactic Scale. Hubble Image of Galaxies. Cosmological Time Scale 1. Cosmological Time Scale 2. Big Bang Introduction. Radius of Observable Universe. (Correction) Radius of Observable Universe. Red Shift. Cosmic Background Radiation. Cosmic Background Radiation 2. Hubble's Law. A Universe Smaller than the Observable. Scale of the Large. Scale of the Small. Introduction to Light. Four Fundamental Forces. Scale of Earth and Sun. Scale of Solar System. Scale of Distance to Closest Stars. Scale of the Galaxy. Intergalactic Scale. Hubble Image of Galaxies. Cosmological Time Scale 1. Cosmological Time Scale 2. Big Bang Introduction. Radius of Observable Universe. (Correction) Radius of Observable Universe. Red Shift. Cosmic Background Radiation. Cosmic Background Radiation 2. Hubble's Law. A Universe Smaller than the Observable.

Our universe is defined by stars. This topic explores how they came to be and where they end up. This includes a discussion of black holes and galaxies. Birth of Stars. Accreting mass due to gravity simulation. Challenge: Modeling Accretion Disks. Becoming a Red Giant. White and Black Dwarfs. Star Field and Nebula Images. Lifecycle of Massive Stars. Supernova (Supernovae). Supernova clarification. Black Holes. Supermassive Black Holes. Quasars. Quasar Correction. Galactic Collisions. Parallax in Observing Stars. Stellar Parallax. Stellar Distance Using Parallax. Stellar Parallax Clarification. Parsec Definition. Cepheid Variables 1. Why Cepheids Pulsate. Why Gravity Gets So Strong Near Dense Objects. Birth of Stars. Accreting mass due to gravity simulation. Challenge: Modeling Accretion Disks. Becoming a Red Giant. White and Black Dwarfs. Star Field and Nebula Images. Lifecycle of Massive Stars. Supernova (Supernovae). Supernova clarification. Black Holes. Supermassive Black Holes. Quasars. Quasar Correction. Galactic Collisions. Parallax in Observing Stars. Stellar Parallax. Stellar Distance Using Parallax. Stellar Parallax Clarification. Parsec Definition. Cepheid Variables 1. Why Cepheids Pulsate. Why Gravity Gets So Strong Near Dense Objects.

This course covers the following topics: X-ray diffraction: symmetry, space groups, geometry of diffraction, structure factors, phase problem, direct methods, Patterson methods, electron density maps, structure refinement, how to grow good crystals, powder methods, limits of X-ray diffraction methods, and structure data bases.

The free online Diploma in General Science course from ALISON is ideal for anyone who wants to gain a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of key subjects in biology, chemistry and physics. In biology you will covers subjects such as cell theory, genetics and evolution; in chemistry you will cover subjects such as atoms, molecules and the periodic table; and in physics you will cover subjects such as magnetism, electricity and sound. This Diploma course will be of great interest to those who want to further improve their knowledge and understanding of general science, and will greatly enhance your career prospects.<br />

Zinc Copper cell (reduction-oxidation). How to Measure?. Battery Meter (Galvanometer). How Many Turns?. Electrolyte Test (pure water vs. vinegar). Reverse Electrodes (polarity). Electrolyte (strong acid test). Electrolyte (salt test). Electrode (distance test). Electrolyte (temperature test). Electrode (surface area test). Standard Cell. How much electrolyte does a single cell need?. What's Next?.

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